The anatomy of the angiosperms is the key to their success

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The anatomy of the angiosperms is the key to their success. (real size dinosaur)They have distinctively complex reproductive organs—flower and fruit—and most woody species additionally possess highly advanced conduction tubes in their roots, stems, and leaves, which give them enormous advantages over other plants. Angiosperms use their brightly petaled flowers to attract animal pollinators (insects, bats, birds), and many use large fruit containing tough seeds to attract animals as agents of dispersal. (Some modern angiosperms are wind-pollinated, but this is an evolutionary reversal. The earliest flowering plants probably exploited animal vectors exclusively.)


Different flower shapes attract different species of insects, bats, and birds, and thus each angiosperm creates the opportunity of spreading its pollen efficiently without the wholesale waste inevitable in pollination by wind. (dinosaur manufacturer)The same is true for angiosperm seeds and fruit, which are far more diverse and distinctive than those of non-angiosperms.


So overwhelming is the advantage of the angiosperms today that non-angiosperms are forced to play subordinate roles in the flora of most areas. Today, the most conspicuous non-angiosperms are conifers, cycads, ferns, ground pine, and horsetails. (life like dinosaur)None of these non-angiosperms produce flowers, and most rely upon the wind to spread their spores, pollen, and seeds.


Conifers—the needle leafed trees—are important in temperate forests, but they are outnumbered by angiosperms ten to one on a worldwide average. Cycads with their spiny fronds are always a tiny minority in every flora. (big size dinosaur manufacturers)Ferns, ground pine, and horsetails, very ancient relics of Coal Age flora, make important contributions to the forest un-dergrowth and to swampy herbiage. But these living Coal Age fossils are outnumbered thirty to one by angiosperm species in nearly all habitats.