Estemmenosuchus & Ulemosaurus

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When the caseid pelycosaurs declined as the main plant- eaters of the middle and late Permian, it was the estemmcnosuchids that took their places. They were massive bull-sized animals with sprawling gaits and spectacular orname ornamentation on their heads. Their huge bodies indicate that they were vegetarians, despite the big canim teeth. walking dinosaur costume


Features:Estemmenosuchus has a heavy skull that is ornamented by the most remarkable arrangement of bumps and horns. There were two by the nostrils, two in the middle of the snout and two that are like the antlers of a moose over the eyes. The cheek bones flare outwards as well. The hind legs are erect, like those of a mammal, for bearing the weight of the animal, but the front legs sprawl out to the side, probably for ease of steering and manoeuvring, allowing the fantastic head to be presented to any rival.



Ulemosaurus was rather like Estemmenosuchus without the head ornamentation. It was originally thought to have been a specimen of Moschops hut it is considerably more primitive in its build than this. As with its relatives it has a big spherical body, short neck and tail, stout hind legs and sprawling front legs that were used for steering.


Features The skull has a narrow tapering snout, and is wide and very tall behind the eyes. Ulemosaurus also has a more specialized tooth pattern. The small side teeth fully interlock as the jaws close, giving them a tight grip on the tough vegetation. The rest of the mouth structure, especially the lack of a palate, shows that Ulemosaurus could not have chewed its food, and that most of the food processes took place in a complex stomach contained in the huge body.