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Elginia and Eunotosaurus


Elginia: One of the last of rhe pareiasaurs to thrive was Elgirtia, and it was also one of the smallest. It is known from only one skull. Towards the end of the Permian, conditions were drying out and the loss of habitat involved probably drove the pareiasaurs to extinction. The last were small specialized forms such as this. Animatronic Walking Dinosaur Costume


Features: On the skull of Elginia the customary pareiasaur bumps and knobs are expanded into a whole array of spectacular horns, one pair in particular being very long, sweeping out sideways and curving backwards. The horns were probably used for display rather than defence. This creature existed perhaps two million years after the big pareiasaurs died out.
Below: Elginia is known from only a single shkull- although a specimen from Russia may be the tail of a juvenile - and so the restoration of the rest of the animal is rather speculative.

Eunotosaurus: Eunotosaurus was once regarded as the direct ancestor of the turtles and tortoises, because of the expanded ribs that seemed to indicate an evolution towards a rigid body that would support a solid shell.
There was also a thin armour of bony scutes across the broad back, which suggested an evolutionary stage in a solid shell's formation. However, this is not now regarded as so, and the Euttotosauridae is now thought to have been a separate aberrant family. Life Size dinosaur model


Features: The remarkable feature of this animal is the rib-cage. It consists of only eight pairs of ribs and these are expanded and leaf-shaped, almost touching each other, and there are only ten vertebrae in the back. However the shoulder blade is outside the rib cage as is usual among vertebrates and not on the inside as it is in turtles and tortoises. The skull is quite unlike that of turtles and tortoises, suggesting that Euonotosaurus is not ancestral to them.

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