The sum of evolutionary evidence is thoroughly damning. In nearly every modification of the evolutionary process made in the duckbills as they developed from their dinosaur ancestors, the duckbills suffered a diminution of their swimming potential. Their fore- and hind paws became shorter and more compact, not longer and more widely spread. Their tails got weaker and stiffer. life like dinosaur. Far from being the best, the duckbills must have been the clumsiest and slowest swimmers in all the Dinosauria. If pressed, they probably could paddle slowly from one riverbank to another. The central theme of their bodily evolution was indeed specialized—orthodox theory was right on that point—but the direction of specialization was landward. These dinosaurs were specialized for a totally terrestrial existence.
Every so often some paleontologists attempt placing some other major dinosaur group in the water. A young Canadian would have Alberta horned dinosaurs wading through the sluggish backwaters of the Judith Delta.real size dinosaurs.But his evidence derived from the dubious notion that the horned dinosaurs spent most of their lives in the water because their fossils are found buried in river-channel sand-stone. American buffalo often are found buried in river sands where their bodies came to rest after a flood, yet the buffalo is hardly an aquatic creature.
One quick way to calculate how well a dinosaur would cope with swampy terrain is to calculate the area of its hind foot available to support the downward thrust of its hind leg. Any-one who has tramped around as many bogs and swamps as I have knows that feet get stuck not when you stand still, but when you step too forcefully and drive your leg down into the muck.life size animatronic dinosaurs. The faster you walk, the more downward thrust is applied to the sole of the foot. Hence to move speedily over mud or soft earth, de-vices such as snowshoes must be used to expand the foot’s area. Hippos follow this pattern: they have wide-spreading toes relative to the power of their legs, a contrast to the small, short-toed feet of the rhino. Since all dinosaurs had stronger hind limbs than fore, the largest thrust would be exerted by their thigh muscles.
So the thickness of the thigh bone (femur) works as a useful gauge of the force applied to the sole of the feet. From fossil footprints, the area of a dinosaur’s foot can be calculated and then compared with the cross section of the femur.