We discussed my disagreement with Lawrence Witmer’s belief that the preorbital opening contained sinuses. Walking dinosaur costume What is more likely is that the shallow depression around the preorbital opening was filled with sinuses. The one or two small openings in the depression ahead of the big preorbital opening probably channeled air tubes from the head’s inner sinuses to its outer preorbital set. These srune sinuses probably covered the jaw muscle that filled the preorbital opening, and like them bulged gently outward.
Long, slender hyoid or throat bones have been found with theropods. life size dinosaur model They probably supported tongues that were fairly large but rather stiff, like a lizard’s. Stiff tongues served the purpose, for predators gulp their food and have no need to carefully and precisely manipulate bolts of meat in their mouths. Herbivores, in contrast, use more supple tongues to properly position each wad of fodder for chewing.
The large eye sockets of most theropods show that they had big eyes. In smaller species the eyeball often fllled the entire orbit. In larger species the eye did not fill the eye socket. Instead, it invariably was set high in the orbit. We know this because in some theropods the lower half of the orbit is closed off by a bony process. Realistic dinosaur costume for sale We can sometimes tell exactly how big the eye was by the bony rings found in many species, which were nearly the same diameter as the eyeballs they contained. Birds still have eye rings, though oddly enough the bigger theropods seem not to have them. However, the size of the erposed eyes are often exaggerated in dinosaur restorations. Much of the eyeball was covered by the eyelids, and even an ostrich’s great eyes do not look that enormous. Also, as theropods got larger, eye size increased less rapidly. So while lJnannoscurus rex had very big eyes, they did not appear so in its four-foot-long head. Theropod irises were probably large, as they are in birds and reptiles. This means that the eye whites were pushed toward the periph.ry of the eyeball and were always covered by the eyelids.