During the late 19th and early 20th century , two imporlanl events mt in the field of paleoanthropology took placed in Asia. First, the ancient human fossil of Java man ( Pithecanthropus erectus ) was found on the island of Java in Indonesia, and Second, teeth of fossil Peking man were discovered at Zhoukoudian near Beijing.lt was hypothesized that mammals including humans originated in Central Asia from where they spread throughout the world. Henry Fairfield Osborn, a founder and director of the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology at the American Museum of Natural History was an advocate of the theory.
In 1920, Osborn decided A to explore the land in Central Asia in order to find early mammals and ancestral hominids in particular. Roy Chapman Andrews became the best candidate for this task due to his experience with Asia.